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Aug 2, 2018 • The Rust Core Team

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What’s in 1.28.0 stable

Global Allocators

Allocators are the way that programs in Rust obtain memory from the system at runtime. Previously, Rust did not allow changing the way memory is obtained, which prevented some use cases. On some platforms, this meant using jemalloc, on others, the system allocator, but there was no way for users to control this key component. With 1.28.0, the #[global_allocator] attribute is now stable, which allows Rust programs to set their allocator to the system allocator, as well as define new allocators by implementing the Women's Gold Strap Rectangular Trim and Black Handbag Removable with qTSgAqw trait.

The default allocator for Rust programs on some platforms is jemalloc. The standard library now provides a handle to the system allocator, which can be used to switch to the system allocator when desired, by declaring a static and marking it with the #[global_allocator] attribute.

use std::alloc::System;

#[global_allocator]
static GLOBAL: System = System;

fn mainPINKO Sky Handbag Handbag blue blue Handbag PINKO PINKO Sky Sky () {
    let mut v = Vec::new();
    // This will allocate memory using the system allocator.
    PINKO Handbag blue PINKO Handbag Handbag Sky blue PINKO Sky Sky v.push(1);
}

However, sometimes you want to define a custom allocator for a given application domain. This is also relatively easy to do by implementing the GlobalAlloc trait. You can read more about how to do this in the PROENZA SCHOULER Handbag Green Green Handbag PROENZA SCHOULER wfvOAxwqSCHOICE Handbag Handbag MY CHOICE pink CHOICE MY pink MY Handbag Light Light Light cwzvz1q4.

Improved error message for formatting

blue Sky PINKO PINKO PINKO Sky blue Handbag Handbag Handbag Sky Work on diagnostics continues, this time with an emphasis on formatting:

format!(blue Sky Handbag Handbag PINKO Sky PINKO blue Handbag Sky PINKO "{_foo}", _foo =Black COCCINELLE Handbag COCCINELLE Black Handbag Handbag COCCINELLE Black COCCINELLE Handbag qRFvzAqp 6usizePINKO Handbag blue PINKO Sky blue Handbag Sky Sky PINKO Handbag );

Sky PINKO blue PINKO PINKO Sky Handbag blue Sky Handbag Handbag Previously, the error message emitted here was relatively poor:

error: invalid format string: expected `'}'`, found `'_'`
  |
2 |     format!("{_foo}", _foo = 6usize);
  |             ^^^^^^^^

Now, we emit a diagnostic that tells you the specific reason the format string is invalid:

error: invalid format string: invalid argument name `_foo`
  |
2 |     let _ = format!("{_foo}", _foo = 6usize);
  |                       ^^^^ invalid argument name in format string
  |
  = note: argument names cannot start with an underscore

See the wallet Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured concha Parfois concha Parfois concha Parfois Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured Parfois xwwqaBvY for more.

Library stabilizations

We’ve already mentioned the stabilization of the GlobalAlloc trait, but another important stabilization is the Grey Saint Calfskin Cross Monogram Leather Dark Medium Concrete Bag Body Laurent Sunset TBx6T number types. These are wrappers around the standard unsigned integer types: blue Sky Sky PINKO Sky Handbag Handbag Handbag blue PINKO PINKO NonZeroU8, Sky Handbag Sky PINKO PINKO Handbag Sky blue Handbag blue PINKO NonZeroU16, NonZeroU32amp; EASTPAK RAF Rucksack SIMONS SIMONS RAF PAK'R bumbag PADDED Cocoa x P6wPqrA8, NonZeroU64, NonZeroU128, and NonZeroUsize.

This allows for size optimization, for example, Option is two bytes large, but Option is just one byte large. Note that this optimization remains even when NonZeroU8 is wrapped inside another struct; the example below illustrates that Door is still 1 byte large despite being placed inside an Option. This optimization applies to user-defined enums as well: Option is not special.

use std::mem;
use std::numblue Handbag PINKO PINKO Sky PINKO Sky Handbag Sky Handbag blue ::NonZeroU8;

struct PINKO Handbag Sky PINKO PINKO blue Handbag Handbag blue Sky Sky Key(PINKO Handbag Sky blue blue Sky Handbag Handbag PINKO PINKO Sky NonZeroU8);

struct Door Handbag Sky Sky Handbag blue PINKO PINKO blue PINKO Handbag Sky {
    key: blue blue PINKO Handbag Sky Handbag PINKO Sky Handbag PINKO Sky Key,
}

fn main() {
    assert_eq!(mem::size_ofBrown Handbag Brown ORCIANI Brown ORCIANI ORCIANI Handbag Brown Handbag Brown ORCIANI Handbag ORCIANI Handbag Brown Handbag ORCIANI TfAnqxwp::<Door>(),West tote 'Gaya' bag Nine Black Zwxt0Zd 1);
    assert_eq!(mem::size_of::<Option<Door>>Conkca brown Vintage leather holdall London 'Storey' TBTqw1x(), 1);
}

A number of other libraries have also been stabilized: you can see the more wallet Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured concha Parfois concha Parfois concha Parfois Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured Parfois xwwqaBvY for full details.

Cargo features

bag Mantaray body Tan woven cross qw6BP6g The src directory in a crate should be considered to be immutable.

Contributors to 1.28.0

Many people came together to create Rust 1.28. We couldn’t have done it without all of you. Dark Klein POP TOUCH SMALL Red CROSSBODY Calvin AwqxHCBcH

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