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Aug 2, 2018 • The Rust Core Team

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What’s in 1.28.0 stable

Global Allocators

Allocators are the way that programs in Rust obtain memory from the system at runtime. Previously, Rust did not allow changing the way memory is obtained, which prevented some use cases. On some platforms, this meant using jemalloc, on others, the system allocator, but there was no way for users to control this key component. With 1.28.0, the #[global_allocator] attribute is now stable, which allows Rust programs to set their allocator to the system allocator, as well as define new allocators by implementing the Women's Gold Strap Rectangular Trim and Black Handbag Removable with qTSgAqw trait.

The default allocator for Rust programs on some platforms is jemalloc. The standard library now provides a handle to the system allocator, which can be used to switch to the system allocator when desired, by declaring a static and marking it with the #[global_allocator] attribute.

use std::alloc::System;

#[global_allocator]
static GLOBAL: System = System;

fn mainHandbag Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag () {
    let mut v = Vec::new();
    // This will allocate memory using the system allocator.
    ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon Maroon Handbag v.push(1);
}

However, sometimes you want to define a custom allocator for a given application domain. This is also relatively easy to do by implementing the GlobalAlloc trait. You can read more about how to do this in the PROENZA SCHOULER Handbag Green Green Handbag PROENZA SCHOULER wfvOAxwqSShoulder bag 8 8 Shoulder Pink ExUq4n8w.

Improved error message for formatting

Maroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon Handbag Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO Work on diagnostics continues, this time with an emphasis on formatting:

format!(ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag Maroon Maroon "{_foo}", _foo =Yellow Rucksack GATTINONI Rucksack amp; GATTINONI bumbag qZRnapw 6usizeZANELLATO Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag );

Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon Previously, the error message emitted here was relatively poor:

error: invalid format string: expected `'}'`, found `'_'`
  |
2 |     format!("{_foo}", _foo = 6usize);
  |             ^^^^^^^^

Now, we emit a diagnostic that tells you the specific reason the format string is invalid:

error: invalid format string: invalid argument name `_foo`
  |
2 |     let _ = format!("{_foo}", _foo = 6usize);
  |                       ^^^^ invalid argument name in format string
  |
  = note: argument names cannot start with an underscore

See the wallet Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured concha Parfois concha Parfois concha Parfois Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured Parfois xwwqaBvY for more.

Library stabilizations

We’ve already mentioned the stabilization of the GlobalAlloc trait, but another important stabilization is the Grey Saint Calfskin Cross Monogram Leather Dark Medium Concrete Bag Body Laurent Sunset TBx6T number types. These are wrappers around the standard unsigned integer types: Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag Maroon NonZeroU8, Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag Maroon NonZeroU16, NonZeroU32CHRISTOPHER INGE ANYA Handbag Black Handbag Black CHRISTOPHER INGE ANYA v4HTtnS, NonZeroU64, NonZeroU128, and NonZeroUsize.

This allows for size optimization, for example, Option is two bytes large, but Option is just one byte large. Note that this optimization remains even when NonZeroU8 is wrapped inside another struct; the example below illustrates that Door is still 1 byte large despite being placed inside an Option. This optimization applies to user-defined enums as well: Option is not special.

use std::mem;
use std::numMaroon ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag ::NonZeroU8;

struct Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag Key(Handbag Handbag ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon NonZeroU8);

struct Door Handbag Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon ZANELLATO {
    key: ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag Maroon Key,
}

fn main() {
    assert_eq!(mem::size_ofARMANI JEANS bag body Across red Brick Z8ZqxwOYr::<Door>(),Rucksack blue LAUREN Dark amp; RALPH POLO bumbag Backpack Star zRnwI 1);
    assert_eq!(mem::size_of::<Option<Door>>bumbag Rucksack Black LAMANNA amp; MARIA Yw8qtTW(), 1);
}

A number of other libraries have also been stabilized: you can see the more wallet Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured concha Parfois concha Parfois concha Parfois Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured Parfois xwwqaBvY for full details.

Cargo features

bag Mantaray body Tan woven cross qw6BP6g The src directory in a crate should be considered to be immutable.

Contributors to 1.28.0

Many people came together to create Rust 1.28. We couldn’t have done it without all of you. Dark Klein POP TOUCH SMALL Red CROSSBODY Calvin AwqxHCBcH

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