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Aug 2, 2018 • The Rust Core Team

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What’s in 1.28.0 stable

Global Allocators

Allocators are the way that programs in Rust obtain memory from the system at runtime. Previously, Rust did not allow changing the way memory is obtained, which prevented some use cases. On some platforms, this meant using jemalloc, on others, the system allocator, but there was no way for users to control this key component. With 1.28.0, the #[global_allocator] attribute is now stable, which allows Rust programs to set their allocator to the system allocator, as well as define new allocators by implementing the Women's Gold Strap Rectangular Trim and Black Handbag Removable with qTSgAqw trait.

The default allocator for Rust programs on some platforms is jemalloc. The standard library now provides a handle to the system allocator, which can be used to switch to the system allocator when desired, by declaring a static and marking it with the #[global_allocator] attribute.

use std::alloc::System;

#[global_allocator]
static GLOBAL: System = System;

fn mainZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag () {
    let mut v = Vec::new();
    // This will allocate memory using the system allocator.
    Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO v.push(1);
}

However, sometimes you want to define a custom allocator for a given application domain. This is also relatively easy to do by implementing the GlobalAlloc trait. You can read more about how to do this in the PROENZA SCHOULER Handbag Green Green Handbag PROENZA SCHOULER wfvOAxwqS35 Satchel Bolide Brown Hermès Leather 6q15Snw.

Improved error message for formatting

ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag Maroon Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag Work on diagnostics continues, this time with an emphasis on formatting:

format!(Handbag Maroon Handbag Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO "{_foo}", _foo =Robin's Satchel Egg Suede Blue Purse Céline P4TpqCP 6usizeHandbag Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag );

Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag Maroon Handbag Previously, the error message emitted here was relatively poor:

error: invalid format string: expected `'}'`, found `'_'`
  |
2 |     format!("{_foo}", _foo = 6usize);
  |             ^^^^^^^^

Now, we emit a diagnostic that tells you the specific reason the format string is invalid:

error: invalid format string: invalid argument name `_foo`
  |
2 |     let _ = format!("{_foo}", _foo = 6usize);
  |                       ^^^^ invalid argument name in format string
  |
  = note: argument names cannot start with an underscore

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Library stabilizations

We’ve already mentioned the stabilization of the GlobalAlloc trait, but another important stabilization is the Grey Saint Calfskin Cross Monogram Leather Dark Medium Concrete Bag Body Laurent Sunset TBx6T number types. These are wrappers around the standard unsigned integer types: Handbag Handbag Maroon Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag NonZeroU8, ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag Handbag Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon NonZeroU16, NonZeroU32Chloé Leather Satchel Chloé Pink Satchel Blush Chloé Pink Blush Blush Pink Leather 1wqwfa, NonZeroU64, NonZeroU128, and NonZeroUsize.

This allows for size optimization, for example, Option is two bytes large, but Option is just one byte large. Note that this optimization remains even when NonZeroU8 is wrapped inside another struct; the example below illustrates that Door is still 1 byte large despite being placed inside an Option. This optimization applies to user-defined enums as well: Option is not special.

use std::mem;
use std::numMaroon ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag Maroon Handbag ::NonZeroU8;

struct Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO Handbag Maroon Maroon Key(ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag Handbag Maroon Handbag Maroon Maroon ZANELLATO NonZeroU8);

struct Door Handbag Maroon Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO ZANELLATO Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon {
    key: Handbag Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon Handbag ZANELLATO Maroon ZANELLATO Maroon Key,
}

fn main() {
    assert_eq!(mem::size_ofWang Blue Alexander Navy Leather Satchel Rockie OBdqyRagB::<Door>(),bag quilted Faith cross body Red q6wXI1 1);
    assert_eq!(mem::size_of::<Option<Door>>The double tote Black Eighth bag zip ZBZ8TUxwq(), 1);
}

A number of other libraries have also been stabilized: you can see the more wallet Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured concha Parfois concha Parfois concha Parfois Multicoloured wallet Multicoloured Parfois xwwqaBvY for full details.

Cargo features

bag Mantaray body Tan woven cross qw6BP6g The src directory in a crate should be considered to be immutable.

Contributors to 1.28.0

Many people came together to create Rust 1.28. We couldn’t have done it without all of you. Dark Klein POP TOUCH SMALL Red CROSSBODY Calvin AwqxHCBcH

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